Puslapis 12

Vėjo jėgainės...

Parašytas: Šeš 02 15, 2003, 23:16
Antanas

Bukite sveiki, mielieji!
Teko "tureti reikalu" su tom vejo jegainem dar iki atsidarant musu keliams i Vakarus. Be to, geras mano buves mokytojas, Danielius Vladas Renavoje (dabar vadinasi Vadagiai), Mazheikiu raj. dar sovietiniais laikais pasistate vejo elektrine.
Viskas grazhu!? Taip, kai ji sukasi gyvenvieteje, kur aplink namai, shurmulys, mashinos...
Bet prisiminkime, kokia mes ruoshiames kurti ateiti sau ir savo vaikams.
sakykime, kad musu mazhamechiai vaikai ar anukai jau susidraugavo su vilkiukais, gandrais, stirnomis...
Kaip reaguos tie draugai i gresmingai shmekshchiojanchius sparnus? Kaip ju jautria klausa veiks tu besisukanchius sparnu sukeliami, mums negirdimi infragarsai? Kokie jausmai uzhvaldys, jau pramokusias geriau jausti ir myleti, musu atzhalas, jei netiketai vieno ish bepradedanchiu mokytis skraidyti gandriuku skrydis pasibaigs tragishku susidurimu su tuo klastingu sparnu? O gal manote, kad paukshchiukas tik ishsirites ish kiausinio jau moka buti atsargus? Teko nemazhai paskraidyti (sklandytuvu), kartu su gandrais, vanagais, stebeti, kaip ore elgiasi seniai, jaunikliai. Skirtumai akivaizdus!
Ash irgi manau, kad pradhioje neishsiversiu be elektros, tachiau manau, kad shiandien mazhiausiai aplinkai pakenksime atsivede atshaka i savo gyvenviete ish visa zheme apraizgiusiu elktros tinklu (gal net pozheminiu, ar bent jau izoliuotu oriniu kabeliu). O kai musu naujoji karta nuspres, kad tie laidai trukdo, uzhteks tik pashnibzhdeti kokiam "i raudonaja knyga irashytam", bet dar netoliese uzhsilikusiam "metalistui", kad Shypsoniuose kabo niekam nebereikalingi laidai, ir jie ta pachia nakti dings be pedsaku... :)
Geros kloties!
Antanas

Parašytas: Sek 02 16, 2003, 4:45
Kristina
visai pritariu vejo malunai gali tureti ir neigama poveiki ,kazkur skaiciau kad nuo skleidziamo ultragarso kai sukasi sparnai gali kilti galvos skausmai ir kt negalavimai.

Parašytas: Pir 05 19, 2003, 21:43
Uosis
Labas visiems besidomintiems :) Čia informacija apie vėjo jėgaines iš energetikos tinklapio lietuvių kalba "www.energystart.lt"

Vėjo jėgainių poveikis aplinkai

Vėjo jėgainių poveikis aplinkai yra santykinai nedidelis, lyginant su kitomis tradicinėmis jėgainėmis, tačiau jos vis tiek kelia tam tikrą susirūpinimą. Pagrindinis poveikis aplinkai arba net vėjo energetikos priimtinumas vertinamas, atsižvelgiant į šiuos veiksnius:

triukšmas; vizualinis (estetinis) poveikis; saugumas ir įtaka gyvūnijai ir augalijai bei gamtinėms buveinėms; elektromagnetiniai trikdžiai; energijos kaina ir aplinkos teršimas; reljefo formos suardymas (erozija);
šešėlių mirgėjimas; šviesos atspindėjimas.

Triukšmas.
Judėdami, vėjo turbinos sparnai kelia garsą, kuris pagal šaltinį gali būti mechaninis arba aerodinaminis.
Greičių dėžė, generatorius ir guoliai kelia mechaninį triukšmą, kurio stiprumas priklauso nuo nominalios galios ir konstrukcijos. Kuo didesnė konversijos sistema, tuo didesnis ir triukšmas.
Sklęsdamos per orą, rotoriaus mentės kelia aerodinaminį triukšmą, kurio garsumas priklauso nuo sukimosi greičio bei vėjo malūno sparnų formos ir savybių. Be to, svarbus ir oro srovės sūkuriavimo stiprumas.
Foninis triukšmas skiriasi, esant skirtingoms vietinėmis sąlygomis, todėl jis įvertinamas, nustatant atstumą tarp sūkuriavimo ir arčiausios gyvenamos vietos. Foninio triukšmo stiprumas yra susijęs su vėjo greičiu, jo poveikiu pastatams (srauto kryptimi), medžiais, gyvatvorėmis ir kitais veiksniais. Keleto kilometrų atstumu turbinos keliamas triukšmas nėra toks stiprus, kad dienos metu būtų girdimas pastato viduje. Tačiau jį reikia matuoti naktį, kada nutyla aplinkinis triukšmas (laivų sirenų, reaktyvinių variklių, automobilių, traukinių, namų apyvokos prietaisų ir kitų triukšmą keliančių daiktų).
Su statyba susijęs vėjo energetikos objektų keliamas triukšmas. Statant vėjo malūnus ir vykdant kitą statybinę veiklą, su vėjo energetikos objektų statyba ir stabdymu susijęs triukšmas nebūna labai didelis. Pagrindiniai tokio triukšmo šaltiniai – sunkvežimių eismas, sprogdinamasis pamatų prakasimas ir didelio galingumo technikos darbas. Objektas pastatomas arba sustabdomas per keletą mėnesių. Automobilių transporto keliamas triukšmas, statant vėjo malūnus, yra minimalus. Ryškiausi su statybos keliamu triukšmu susiję poveikiai jaučiami, jei jie ardo tų rūšių gyvūnų, kuriuos yra svarbu išsaugoti, gyvybinį ciklą (poravimąsi, lizdų sukimą ir pan.) arba jei jis keliamas nedarbo metu ir trukdo netoliese gyvenantiems žmonėms.

Vizualinis poveikis
Vėjo turbinos yra puikiai matomi objektai. Šiuolaikinių vėjo turbinų stiebai siekia 30 – 100 metrų virš žemės. Nepasitenkinimas vėjo turbinų vaizdu dalinai priklauso nuo aplinkos, kur jos yra pastatytos. Šalyse, kur plėtojama vėjo energetika, yra įprasta atsižvelgti į vėjo jėgainių parko daromą vizualinį poveikį, o kilus prieštaravimams, vėjo energetikos projektų yra atsisakoma arba jie atidedami. Vertinant vizualinį poveikį, svarbu atskirti matomumą nuo vizualinio poveikio. Vizualinė įtakos zona (VĮZ) apima žemės plotus aplink vėjo jėgainių parko teritoriją, iš kurių turbinos gali būti visiškai arba dalinai matomos. Tam tikru mastu VĮZ dydis yra matomumo blokavimo matas, tačiau svarbu yra tai, kad VĮZ nubrėžia vėjo turbinų matomumo ribas.
Vėjo turbinų vizualinis poveikis priklauso nuo daugelio veiksnių. Kai kuriuos jų galima išmatuoti, kiekybiškai įvertinti arba modeliuoti, naudojant tam tikras priemones, pvz. atstumą nuo stebėtojo iki vėjo jėgainių parko, visiškai arba dalinai matomų vėjo turbinų skaičių, turbinų dydį ir tipą, sparnų skaičių, rotoriaus sukimosi greitį, vėjo turbinų spalvą, vėjo turbinų išsidėstymą teritorijoje, aplinkos apšvietimo sąlygas, oro sąlygas, esamą regėjimo lauką ir aplinkiniame kraštovaizdyje matomus elementus. Šiuos ir daugelį kitų veiksnių galima objektyviai įvertinti, tačiau kiekvieno jų įtaka skirsis, priklausomai nuo vietos, iš kurios bus stebimas vėjo jėgainių parkas. Šiuolaikinė vėjo jėgainių parkų projektavimo programinė įranga suteikia įvairiausių animacijos galimybių, siekiant atlikti vėjo turbinų ir ypač vėjo jėgainių parkų įgyvendinimo tyrimus.

Saugumas ir poveikis gyvūnijai bei augalijai
Daugumoje vėjo energetiką plėtojančių valstybių buvo atlikti išsamūs tyrimai, kaip vėjo turbinos veikia paukščių gyvenimą. Paprastai svarbiausiu dalyku laikytas paukščių susidūrimo su vėjo malūnais dažnumas, tačiau taip pat tirta ir turbinų įtaka paukščių ramybei ir maisto suradimui. Susirūpinimas dėl poveikio paukščiams yra suprantamas. Kartais paukščiai žūva, atsitrenkę į rotorius. Naujausia technologinė pažanga sumažino pavojų migruojantiems paukščiams, padidindama menčių dydį ir pagerindama jų matomumą, sumažindama sukimosi greitį ir panaudojant vamzdinius stiebus su vidinėmis kopėčiomis ir požeminėmis instaliacijomis, siekiant nesudaryti sąlygų tupėjimui ir lizdų sukimui ant pačios konstrukcijos. Potencialaus poveikio vietovėje gyvenančiai florai ir faunai vertinimas yra neatskiriama poveikio aplinkai vertinimo dalis. Šiuo metu vyrauja bendra nuomonė, kad vėjo jėgainių parkai turi nedidelę įtaką žemės ekologijai, tačiau, siekiant sužinoti daugiau, reikėtų atlikti žemės tyrimus prieš pastatant vėjo turbiną ir jai veikiant, atsižvelgiant į turbinų dydį ir tipą, požemines instaliacijas ir kitas susijusias priemones.

Elektromagnetiniai trikdžiai
Kaip ir kitos konstrukcijos, vėjo turbinos gali skaidyti elektromagnetinio ryšio (taip pat televizijos) signalus. Tai vyksta, kai vėjo turbinų dydis yra panašus į perduodamų televizijos ir radijo signalų bangų ilgį. Besisukančios vėjo turbinų dalys gali kelti radijo transliacijos trikdžius. Metaliniai rotoriai atspindi radijo bangas ir trukdo radijo ir televizijos bangų priėmimui. Atidžiai parinkus vėjo turbinų vietą ir atlikus nedidelį techninį reguliavimą, galima nesunkiai pašalinti radijo ir televizijos signalų potencialius trikdžius telekomunikacijų sistemose. Programinės įrangos pagalba analizuojant turbinų išdėstymą, siekiama vengti tam tikrų vietų, pavyzdžiui, lauko ruožų tarp mikrobangų linijų arba arti perdavimo stočių esančių vietovių.

Energijos kaina ir aplinkos teršimas
Vėjo turbinų arba vėjo energijos konverterio įrangos dalių gamybai naudojamas medžiagas ir jų keliamą teršimą bei energijos kainą reikėtų įvertinti, atsižvelgiant į vėjo turbinų dydį, jų tipą ir instaliuotą galią. Be to, energija vartojama ir aplinka teršiama ruošiant žemę ir kelius vėjo jėgainių parkų statybai, tačiau šiuo metu vyrauja bendra nuomonė, kad vėjo jėgainių parkų poveikis yra nedidelis. Vis dėlto, norint išsiaiškinti daugiau, reikėtų atlikti tyrimą.

Reljefo formos suardymas
Pasitaikė atvejų, kada vėjo jėgainių parko statyba sukėlė dirvožemio eroziją. Šios problemos galima išvengti, statybos projektavimo pradžioje pakankamai dėmesio skiriant dirvožemio apsaugai ir erozijos reguliavimo priemonėms. Faktiškai, tai galima daryti vykdant bet kokio pobūdžio statybą lengvai erozijos paveikiamoje vietovėje. Priešerozinių priemonių sąraše yra minimaliai mažo kelių skaičiaus statyba, kuo didesnis natūralių žemės kontūrų išlaikymas ir vėjo malūnus statant suardytos žemės kuo operatyvesnis atstatymas.

Šešėlių mirgėjimas
Tam tikroje geografinėje padėtyje ir esant tam tikram dienos metui saulė gali užeiti už vėjo turbinų sparnų ir mesti šešėlį. Sparnams sukantis, šešėlis ima mirgėti. Šis poveikis pasireiškia tik pastatuose, kur mirgėjimas patenka į vidų per langą, žinoma, jeigu pastatas stovi arčiau negu rekomenduojama.

Šviesos atspindėjimas
Tam tikromis sąlygomis judantys vėjo turbinų sparnai gali atspindėti saulės šviesą. Atspindėtos šviesos kiekis priklauso nuo sparnų paviršiaus apdailos ir šviesos kritimo kampo.

Augant susidomėjimui techninių įrenginių gamtoje aplinkosauginiais aspektais, nuo devintojo dešimtmečio Europos Sąjunga (toliau – ES) dėjo pastangas, siekdama sudaryti modelį, kuriame būtų atsižvelgta į aplinkosaugines aplinkybes. Šį modelį turėtų sudaryti techninis įrenginio ir aplinkos, kuriai jis greičiausiai turės poveikį, aprašymas. Modelį užbaigia įrenginio įtakos aplinkai vertinimas. 1985 metais ES priėmė poveikio aplinkai vertinimo direktyvą. Direktyvose nubrėžiamos gairės, kokie aspektai turėtų būti imami domėn, atliekant poveikio aplinkai vertinimą.

Parašytas: Sek 06 08, 2003, 19:22
Uosis
Sveiki, :D radau įdomios informacijos, kad lietuviai yra suprojektavę našenę už tradicines vėjo jėgainę, kuri yra labiau pritaikyta mūsų kraštui. Jei ir kaina yra mažesnė, tai būsimoj gyvenvietėj aš siūlyčiau statyt tik tokią :lol: Ištrauka iš "Verslo žinių":

Pajūriui konkurenciją žada sudaryti ir vilniškė elektronikos UAB "Technogama", ji ketina šiemet paleisti savo išrastą bei sukonstruotą 10 kW galingumo silpnų vėjų jėgainę. UAB "Technogama" netoli Maišiagalos (Vilniaus raj.) pradėjo statyti bokštą, į kurį dar šiemet ketina įkelti unikalią vėjo jėgainę. Pasak Algimanto Griežės, "Technogamos" direktoriaus, bendrovės vėjo jėgainei nebus lygiaverčių konkurenčių pasaulyje. Dauguma dabar gaminamų jėgainių efektyviai dirba esant gana stipriems vėjams - daugiau kaip 10 m/s. Tuo tarpu didžiojoje Lietuvos ir didelėje Vakarų Europos dalyje vyrauja silpni - 3-5 m/s vėjai, prie kurių "Technogamos" įrenginio galingumas - iki 10 kartų didesnis, o elektros energijos savikaina - apie 30 kartų mažesnė nei konkurentų jėgainių.

Parašytas: Tre 11 10, 2004, 20:18
Inge
Gal kas zinote ar yra numatytas perteklines energijos supirkimas?

Apie perteklinės elektros energijos supirkimą

Parašytas: Tre 12 15, 2004, 12:00
Melanija
Inge rašė:Gal kas zinote ar yra numatytas perteklines energijos supirkimas?

Apie vėjo jėgaines, perteklines energijos supirkimą ir kitos įdomios informacijos galite rasti

http://www.ekostrategija.lt

Parašytas: Šeš 12 17, 2005, 0:36
Laimis
Sukiniuose du žmogeliai galvojo pasistatyti vėjo jėgainę. Viską apskaičiavo, pasidalino energiją į dvi dalis, atrodo po 15kW gavosi ir nebrangu ir liuks viskas. Ir Kaune parduoda ir jau viską sutarė...

O paskui apsigalvojo. Sako: kenkia gamtai..nedarysim. :)

Parašytas: Šeš 12 17, 2005, 0:53
Uriel
O man vis iš galvos neišeina hidro variantas... Ir svajoju apie upeliuką sklype.
Kai rūpi kažkas ir klausimas kutena, atsakymas pats ateina.
Užvakar pietavau su vienu verslininku, bendravom apie viską ir apie nieką, ir jis papasakojo, kaip Latvijos verslininkai važinėjo į Sankt Peterburgo Povandeninių laivų gamyklą ir pirko ten (nelegaliai gautas) turbinas povandeniniams laivams. Mažame upelyje įtaisyta užtvankėlė, sukanti vieną turbiną, puikiai aprūpina 20-25 namus.
Ką manote? Tylu, ekologiška, netriukšmauja daugiau nei vandenėlis, nuo užtvankos krisdamas.

Parašytas: Sek 12 18, 2005, 17:54
Laimis
Ten statomos grotelės ir paskui smulkesnis sietelis, ir žuvys į turbiną neįplaukia... Plačiau žr. temoje Hidro enerija ;) Čia moderatorius turėtų pratrinti... Čia tik apie vėją prašom...

Parašytas: Pir 12 19, 2005, 16:43
omega
isivaizduokite vejo jegaine - ir kas savaite nepaisydami baisaus triuksmo einate surinkti nukautu pauksciu. kad infekciju nenestu, vaikuciams akiu nebadytu... guli jusu lakstingalos sparnelius atmuse...

Parašytas: Pir 12 19, 2005, 16:52
Laimis
Aš mačiau porą vėjo jėgainių, bet nei didelio triukšmo, nei negyvų paukščių šalia nemačiau. Manau būna taip, kad paukščiai žūna atsitrenkę į sparnus, bet tai būna labai labai retai. O ne kas savaitę... :)

Parašytas: Pir 12 19, 2005, 17:00
omega
as aisku hipertrofavau, nereikia visko tiesiogiai suprasti, bet net jei tik ir karta per metus tektu tai daryti vis tiek nemalonu.
bet to paradine uniforma visada grazene uz kasdienius darbo rubus, tad nieko nuostabaus, akd kai kas nors lankosi nemato bloguju pusiu ir seimininkai ar pardavejai (daznai vienas ir tas pats asmuo) apie tai ir nepasakoja.
bet man pasiziurejus filmuka apie ju nauda ir zala bet kokia mitis tai daryti praejo.
beje mano vienas pazistamas turejo nusipirkes ir pasistates. po pusmecio issiarde. nesigilinau kokio tipo ji buvo, bet jam nepatiko.

Parašytas: Pir 12 19, 2005, 18:18
Laimis
Jėga omega, o kur gauti tą filmuką? Aš irgi noriu pažiūrėti ir jei tikrai jis rimtas filmukas, tai reikia, kad kuo daugiau žmonių pamatytų tą filmuką ir suprastų vėjo jėgainių žalą...

Prašom nuorodą įdėt arba duot filmą man nusikopijuot, nžn kuriam formate tu jį turi. :)

Parašytas: Pir 12 19, 2005, 19:30
omega
tai nebuvo tik apie zala - buvo ir apie gerasias puses, bet man tu migruojanciu ir greta gyvenanciu paukstuku buvo labai gaila. ir kol kas dar zmones nesugalvojo kaip ispresti sia problema, kad nekenktu kitiems zemes sutverimams.
o filmo pati as neturiu ir net dabar neinau kaip ji butu galima gauti deja :-((.

Mažiau kenksminga (aplinkai) ir tylesnė alternatyva

Parašytas: Ant 12 20, 2005, 9:30
LygiaiLija

Parašytas: Ant 12 20, 2005, 13:53
Laimis
Birds and Wind Turbines

Birds often collide with high voltage overhead lines, masts, poles, and windows of buildings. They are also killed by cars in the traffic.
Birds are seldom bothered by wind turbines, however. Radar studies from Tjaereborg in the western part of Denmark, where a 2 megawatt wind turbine with 60 metre rotor diameter is installed, show that birds - by day or night - tend to change their flight route some 100-200 metres before the turbine and pass above the turbine at a safe distance.
In Denmark there are several examples of birds (falcons) nesting in cages mounted on wind turbine towers.
The only known site with bird collision problems is located in the Altamont Pass in California. Even there, collisions are not common, but they are of extra concern because the species involved are protected by law.
A study from the Danish Ministry of the Environment says that power lines, including power lines leading to wind farms, are a much greater danger to birds than the wind turbines themselves.
Some birds get accustomed to wind turbines very quickly, others take a somewhat longer time. The possibilities of erecting wind farms next to bird sanctuaries therefore depend on the species in question. Migratory routes of birds will usually be taken into account when siting wind farms, although bird studies from Yukon, Canada, show that migratory birds do not collide with wind turbines (Canadian Wind Energy Association Conference, 1997).

© Copyright 1997-2003 Danish Wind Industry Association
Updated 10 May 2003
http://www.windpower.org/en/tour/env/birds.htm

-------------------------------------------------

Lietuviškai:

Paukščiai susiduria su aukštos įtampos laidais, stiebais, stulpais, pastatų langais. Taip pat jie žūna susidūrimuose su automobiliais.

Kaip bebūtų, vėjo turbinos paukščiams kelia mažai rūpesčių.

Radaro tyrimai Danijoje parodė, kad paukščiai 100-200 metrų iki turbinos pakeičia skridimo kryptį ir saugiai praskrenda pro turbiną.

Vienintelė vieta, kurioje pastebima pukščių susidūrimo su turbina problemos yra Altamont Pass, Kalifornijoje. Bet ir ten ši problema nėra dėsnis, o greičiau susirūpinimas įstatymų saugomais paukščiais.

Danijos Aplinkos ministras sako, kad grėsmę kelia ne turbinos, o elektros laidai.

Paukščių tyrimai Yukon, Kanadoje, rodo, kad paukščiai nesusiduria su vėjo jėgainių turbinomis.

Vertė: Laimis :)

Parašytas: Ant 12 20, 2005, 14:07
Laimis
What Kills Birds?
Šaltinis: http://www.currykerlinger.com/birds.htm

Human Causes of Bird Fatalities

Curry & Kerlinger has compiled the following information from environmental organizations and goverment agencies.

This list is meant to inform the public and to put wind turbine fatalities in perspecitve.

Glass Windows
Bird Deaths a year: 100 to 900+ million

Dr. Daniel Klem of Muhlenberg College has done studies over a period of 20 years, looking at bird collisions with windows. His conclusion: glass kills more birds than any other human related factor.

House Cats
Bird Deaths a year: 100 Million

The National Audubuon Society says 100 million birds a year fall prey to cats. Dr. Stan Temple of the University of Wisconsin estimates that in Wisconsin alone, about 7 million birds a year are killed by cats

Automobiles / Trucks

Bird Deaths a year: 50 to 100 Million
Scientists estimate the number of birds killed by cars and trucks on the nation's highways to be 50 to 100 million a year. Those statistics were cited in reports published by the National Institute for Urban Wildlife and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Electric Transmission Line Collisions
Bird Deaths a year: up to 174 million

Estimates made by the U.S. Fish and Wildife Service demonstrate millions of birds die each year as a result of colliding with transmission lines.

Agriculture
Bird Deaths a year: 67 million

Pesticides likely poison an estimated 67 million birds per year according to the Smithsonian Institution. Cutting hay may kill up to a million more birds a year.

Land Development
Bird Deaths a year: unknown

Suburban sprawl is a silent but deadly killer. The National Audubon Society says loss of bird habitat is the greatest threat to bird populations.

Communication Towers
Bird Deaths a year: 4 to 10 million

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that bird collisions with tall, lighted communications towers, and their guy wires result in 4 to 10 million bird deaths a year.

Stock Tank Drowning
Bird Deaths a year: unknown

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists and other conservationists believe that large numbers of birds inadvertently drown in livestock water tanks.

Oil and Gas Extraction
Bird Deaths a year: 1 to 2 million

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service reports that up to 2 million birds died landing in oil pits to bathe and drink in 1997. Fish and Wildlife says netting has improved that situation somewhat. There are no overall estimates for the number of birds affected by oil and gas spills, and oil and gas extractions (and transport.)

Logging and Strip Mining
Bird Deaths a year: unknown

Logging and strip mining destroy bird habitat. According to the National Audubon Society, habitat destruction is the leading cause of bird population declines.

Commercial Fishing
Bird Deaths a year: unknown

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Ornithological Council report that 40 thousand seabirds per year are killed in the Gulf of Alaska by longline fishing operations. These same sources say long lining and gill netting kill large numbers of birds in other parts of the country as well.

Electrocutions
Raptor Deaths a year: more than 1,000

Experts estimate that more than one thousand hawks, eagles, falcons and owls are electrocuted on transmission lines and poles each year.

Hunting
Bird Deaths a year: 100 + million

According to the U.S. Fish and Wildife Service, more than 100 million ducks, geese, swans, doves, shorebirds, rails, cranes, among others are harvested legally each year.

Parašytas: Ant 12 20, 2005, 14:09
Laimis
Wind Power and Bird Studies
Šaltinis: http://www.currykerlinger.com/studies.htm

Studies done in the past 15 years have documented the numbers and types of birds that collide with wind turbines. In the studies, turbines are searched systematically by trained personnel for several months to several years.

The information provided below was extracted from those studies.

NorthEast
Midwest
West
Canada
NORTH EAST
Massachusetts

* Site...8 older turbines at Princeton Wind Farm, a forested site near the Watchusett Mountain State Forest and hawk watch.
* Date...Surveys conducted in autumn and winter, 1993.
* Findings...Zero bird fatalities recorded.

New York

Madison

* Site... 7 modern turbines at farmland site in Central New York.
* Date..One year of surveys conducted 2001-2002.
* Findings...Four bird fatalities recorded.

Copenhagen

* Site...2 modern turbines at farmland site 30 miles inland from Lake Ontario.
* Date..Surveys conducted during spring and autumn migration seasons, 1994.
* Findings...Zero bird fatalities recorded.

Pennsylvania

* Site...8 modern turbines at farmland site in Somerset County, Southwestern Pa.
* Date..One year of surveys 2000-2001.
* Findings...Zero bird fatalities recorded.

Vermont

* Site......11 modern turbines at forested site near Searsburg.
* Date.......Surveys conducted in June through October, 1996.
* Findings...Zero bird fatalities recorded.

MIDWEST
Iowa

* Site...3 modern turbines in farmland near Algona.
* Date...Surveys conducted three seasons.
* Findings...Zero bird fatalities recorded.

Kansas

* Site...2 modern wind turbines in grassland prairie near St. Mary's.
* Date...Surveys conducted in 3 migration seasons.
* Findings...Zero bird fatalities recorded.

Minnesota

* Site...200+ turbine site at Buffalo Ridge, a farmland area near Lake Benton.
* Date...Surveys conducted 1997-2002.
* Findings...53 bird fatalities recorded. One raptor. No endangered or threatened species.

Wisconsin

* Site...31 modern turbines located on farmland on the Door County peninsula.
* Date...1999-2000
* Findings...21 bird fatalities recorded, mostly song birds.

WEST
California

Altamont

* Site...5,400 turbine site (mostly older) on grassland.
* Date...Surveys conducted 1989-2002. Several studies, some ongoing.
* Findings...Significant raptor mortality recorded. (Exceptionally high raptor and prey density.) Small numbers of some other species involved.

Montezuma Hills

* Site...237 older and 11 modern turbines in farmland near Sacramento River.
* Date...2+ years of surveys.
* Findings...10 raptor, 2 songbird, 1 duck fatality recorded

San Gorgonio Pass

* Site...2,700 modern and older turbines at desert site in Palm Springs area.
* Findings...Recent studies indicate very few bird fatalities.

Tehachapi Pass

* Site...3,700 modern and older turbines in study at rangeland/arid grassland site.
* Findings...Recent surveys indicate low (perhaps moderate) level of avian mortality. Small numbers raptor fatalities recorded.

Colorado

* Site...29 turbine site (modern) on cattle and bison rangeland at Ponnequin. (15 turbines added in 2001.)
* Date...Surveys conducted 1998-2002.
* Findings...16 bird fatalities recorded. (One raptor.) No endangered/threatened species.

Oregon

* Site...38 modern turbines on wheat and grazing lands at Vansycle, Umatilla County.
* Date...Surveys conducted 1999.
* Findings...8 song bird and 4 game bird fatalities recorded. Zero raptors or endangered/threatened species.

Wyoming

* Site...105 modern turbines on rangeland near Arlington, Wyoming.
* Date...Surveys conducted 1998 through 2000.
* Findings...75 bird fatalities recorded. Mostly songbird migrants, 3 raptors.

CANADA

Le Nordais, Quebec

* Site...133 modern turbines at forested site on the Gaspe.
* Date...Surveys of 26 turbines conducted over two migration seasons.
* Findings...Zero bird fatalities recorded.

Parašytas: Ant 12 20, 2005, 14:16
Laimis
Prieš tai esančiose žinutėse pateikiama kiek paukščių žūna per metus nuo įvairios žmogaus veiklos ir kiek žūna nuo vėjo turbinų. Nuo kitos veiklos žūna milijonai per metus, o nuo vėjo turbinų - tik vienetai, o kai kur visai nežūna. Be to, tirtos turbinos stovi paukščių migracijos takuose, prie jūros ar vandenyno. Vidury Lietuvos, turbūt tas skaičius dar sumažėtų... :) Taip pat pabrėžiama, kad kai kurio tipo vėjo jėgainės labiau kenkia už kitas. Taigi, galima statyt saugaus tipo vėjo jėgaines.

Nežinau, bet man atrodo, kad vėjo turbinų žala paukščiams yra pseudo problema. Nėra čia problemos. :)

Aplinkai vėjo jėgainės kenkia kitais aspektais, o ne paukščių žudymo aspektu... Bet aš aišku dar pastudijuosiu, patikslinsiu informaciją. :)

Parašytas: Ant 12 20, 2005, 14:44
Laimis
WIND ENERGY & WILDLIFE:
an attempt at pragmatism

Šaltinis: http://www.wildlifemanagementinstitute. ... power.html

Rob Manes, Stephanie Harmon, Brian Obermeyer, Roger Applegate
October 2002

Introduction

The purpose of this examination is to preliminarily identify potential problems, possible solutions, speculation and unfounded concerns regarding the implications of wind power development for wildlife. The primary focus is on the grassland birds of the central plains.

Early concerns about wind energy development focused on bird deaths that result from collisions with wind generator blades, towers, support structures, and power lines. This was a readily observable phenomenon, so it was easy to garner support for studies and for corrective actions. Wind power industry leaders generally responded responsibly to this issue by supporting monitoring and implementing improved designs.

Wildlife advocates and environmentalists were slower to grasp other potential impacts of wind power development. Although some biologists recognized that there could be significant fragmentation of habitats associated with wind power facilities, wildlife advocates have voiced minimal concern over this issue to date. The wind industry has reacted accordingly, pursuing what, for all appearances, is one of the more environmentally friendly means of generating power for an energy-hungry society.


What We Know About Wildlife Impacts and Wind Power

Collisions

Early on, wildlife biologists expressed concern over potential bird deaths resulting from collisions with elevated lines, turbine blades, towers, and support structures. University researchers, wildlife agency staff, and energy developers focused their attention on the issue and found only scattered evidence that the problem was widespread or even numerically significant at the population level.

Radio, television, and wind generator towers taller than 200 feet have proven more hazardous to night-migrating birds. Some biologists have suggested that aircraft warning lights required on towers taller than 199 feet attract and disorient night-migrating birds, increasing the number of fatalities they cause. The noise of wind turbines may disorient flying bats also, increasing the likelihood that they will collide with these elevated structures. Predictably, towers erected near wetlands and other bird concentration areas or migration corridors precipitate more collision deaths. Even considering such situations in total, bird collisions with wind generator towers, blades, and transmission lines may not constitute a significant threat for most species or populations. Ill-sited facilities in the habitats of highly vulnerable species may constitute an exception to this statement.

Habitats Broken: fragmenting grasslands and shrublands
As wind generation technology has evolved and spread, wildlife biologists have begun to recognize that impacts other than bird collisions are cause for greater concern. One such concern is the fragmentation of grassland and shrubland habitats by wind turbines and associated infrastructure. Of particular concern are threats to prairie grouse (sage grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, and lesser and greater prairie-chicken), which are icons of North American plains wildlife.

The life cycles of prairie grouse require large expanses of unfragmented, ecologically healthy rangelands. Intact expanses of mixed-grass, short-grass and sage brush prairie are essential to the lesser prairie-chicken, and mixed- and tall-grass prairie support the greater prairie-chicken and sharp-tailed grouse. Unbroken expanses of these grasslands and shrublands are also important travelways for migrating birds and mammals.

Increasingly, grassland habitats are fragmented by croplands, poorly managed grazing, and other human influences. The result is that scant remaining habitats are rendered more important to the future of prairie grouse and other sensitive species.

Lesser prairie-chicken inhabit only parts of five states -- Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. Presently their populations are declining at rates that some experts predict could bring about their extinction. A petition to protect the species under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) resulted in a determination that such action is warranted, but is precluded by higher priorities. Resulting primarily from cropland development and unfavorable grazing practices, the lesser prairie-chicken’s historic range has receded by 92 percent, and its entire population has declined by 74 percent. These birds require blocks of quality habitat entailing 2,000 to 4,000 contiguous acres for nesting success; and experts suspect that habitat blocks exceeding 20,000 acres may be required to support the birds’ entire life cycle.

Remaining lesser prairie-chicken habitat in Kansas and Oklahoma occurs roughly in the states’ combined western third. The proliferation of irrigation systems has allowed much of the short-grass and sand-sage prairie of this area to be converted to cropland. Intensive grazing has diminished remaining grassland habitats. Other influences, including roads and oil and gas production, also contribute to this trend.

The grasslands of eastern Kansas and Oklahoma comprise the continent’s only remaining large, contiguous expanse of the tallgrass ecosystem. This region constitutes one of the most important remaining greater prairie-chicken strongholds, but biologists estimate that only about 20 percent of early the 1980s population remains there today. In the mid-1980s, biologists estimated total greater prairie-chicken numbers at 1.2 million; by the late 1990s, the estimated number had dropped to about 400,000. While the causes of these declines are not fully documented, experts cite the widespread use of intensive early-season cattle grazing and annual spring pasture burning among the problems for greater prairie-chickens. Both practices diminish the availability of essential nesting and brood-rearing habitats. Other factors, including the increasing intrusion of trees and other invasive plants in the tallgrass prairie, also contribute to the greater prairie-chicken’s decline. Woody plant encroachment is particularly problematic on the Flint Hills periphery, where prescribed fire is not widely used.

Kansas, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Texas are noted as states with the greatest wind energy production potential, and 12 midwestern states may hold as much as 90 percent of the U.S. wind power potential. These states also entail much of the remaining habitat for sharp-tailed grouse and lesser and greater prairie-chicken. The influences that have degraded the habitats of these birds magnify the effects of each additional threat. In combination with misplaced or ill-designed wind power development, intensive grazing, annual pasture burning, road development, urban sprawl, oil and gas production, power line placement, dispersed residential development, and other influences pose a likely synergistic threat to prairie grouse and other grassland species.

Habitats Abandoned

Leks, the unique, traditional mating grounds of prairie grouse, are consistently located on elevated grassland sites with few vertical obstructions. These are also often preferred sites for wind generation facilities. Many ground-dwelling birds appear to be sensitive to elevated structures in their otherwise relatively flat habitats. Grassland birds – including some species whose populations are declining seriously – avoid trees, buildings, power poles, and other elevated structures that can serve as raptor perches. Three grassland bird species have been documented to avoid areas within 100 meters of wind turbines. Recent research involving prairie grouse offers confirmation.

Similar effects of elevated structures have been identified regarding lesser prairie chicken, with no nesting or brood rearing within 400 meters of roads and 300 meters of power lines. In addition, a recent study found no nesting or lekking within one-half mile of a gas line compressor station. Lesser prairie-chickens generally avoid human activity and seldom nest within one-quarter mile of inhabited dwellings, and the birds have been shown to avoid a one-mile radius of a coal-fired power plant.


What We Fear

Though many gaps exist in the foundational knowledge regarding effects of wind power facilities on birds and other wildlife, what is known troubles wildlife experts. Collision-related bird deaths and, more importantly, landscape fragmentation and habitat abandonment by grassland birds, is sufficiently documented to generate speculation and concern about further-reaching impacts.

While most examinations of collision-related deaths indicate that this phenomena is generally not a threat to bird or bat populations, existing studies do reveal potential for this to become numerically significant in certain circumstances. Very large wind generator installations, involving hundreds or even thousands of towers, especially if sited in migration or staging areas, could produce major negative impacts on some bird populations, particularly those that are already diminished by other factors.

The potential for widespread habitat abandonment by grassland birds, and possibly other wildlife, caused by wind power facilities also concerns wildlife scientists. While data regarding this phenomenon presently is narrowly based, it shows that certain species, particularly ground-nesting birds, halt or diminish their use of areas near towers, transmission lines, poles, and roads. Some bird populations examined in existing studies are declining seriously, and a few are candidates for endangered species status.

Species that use leks may be especially susceptible to disturbance from tall foreign structures and from noise, which may disrupt their mating communication. The prairie grouse, many of which are in serious population declines, are lekking species, and biologists are especially concerned about the intersection of the continent’s most important grouse habitats and prime wind generation regions. Sage grouse, for example, avoid areas that have tall structures that could serve as perches for predatory birds. There is evidence that this behavioral avoidance occurs, even if anti-perching devices prevent raptors from using towers and poles as hunting vantage points. Similarly, other avian species show tendencies to abandoned otherwise suitable nesting habitats, if tall structures are present.

In addition to an apparent avoidance of elevated structures, some species also are hazed out of important habitat areas by automobile traffic and other human activities, such as may be associated with maintenance and operation of wind generation facilities. Sage grouse have been shown to avoid traffic noise, and roads are known to interrupt migrations of some mammals. This gives rise to concerns that the roads and other infrastructure of wind turbines may entail threats to grassland birds.

Perhaps the greatest concern of wildlife advocates and experts is the cumulative impact of the many factors that fragment the continent’s plains ecosystems. Crop production has been the primary factor replacing more than 90 percent of the nation’s former grasslands. Long-term disadvantageous livestock management practices have degraded much of the remaining prairies and shrub steppe ecotypes; and dispersed residential development, urban sprawl, highways, invasive plants, and energy development threaten much of the rest. The precious few areas that have not been seriously degraded by these influences are protected by unyielding soils, steep topography, remoteness, and by conservation-minded landowners. Wind energy production could find its way into these critical remaining prairie and shrub steppe ecosystems. Combined with the existing threats to these areas, widespread wind power development could be devastating to some species.

Lesser prairie-chicken may best illustrate this daunting potential. The remaining habitat of this species overlaps almost totally with identified prime wind generation areas. This interplay could push the lesser prairie-chicken to ESA listing, possibly even to extinction, especially if wind energy development expands into of the unbroken native and restored grasslands of the five states the species inhabits.


What Wildlife Interests Need From Wind Energy Interests Today

Open Dialog & Public Outreach

Many potential conflicts between wind energy development and wildlife conservation can be eliminated or minimized through open dialog between the stakeholders, including energy developers, wildlife professionals, landowners, consumers, wildlife advocates, policy makers, and others. This dialog must be consistent, honest and directed at resolving issues, rather than simply protecting interests. It must recognize that both clean, reliable energy and healthy ecosystems are essential to the quality of human life. All stakeholders must bring to this dialog potential solutions to identified problems, and to the concerns of others.

In addition, it is important that key stakeholders cooperate to ensure that public information regarding wind power is readily available and accurate. Messages that overstate the ecological threats or the environmental or economic benefits of wind power must be avoided.

Standard Biological Inventories and Monitoring Practices

It is important that wind energy developers and wildlife interests cooperate to design and implement standard practices to reliably inventory plant and animal communities before development sites are selected, before construction begins on selected sites, and after development is completed. Long-term monitoring of potentially affected wildlife populations is essential. Such efforts are not without cost, and it is reasonable that funding should come from multiple stakeholders, including consumers, energy developers, and wildlife agencies and organizations. Important monitoring issues include bird collision deaths, long-term bird and mammal habitat use for all life-cycle phases; cumulative and synergistic ecological effects of wind energy development and other land uses; immediate and long-term economic impacts and cost-benefit comparisons; and others.

Best Management Practices

As wind energy development expands and the knowledge base regarding wildlife impacts grows, a set of prescriptions for designing, siting and building wind turbine facilities must be created. Standards for designing and managing wildlife habitats may also be important in avoiding negative ecological impacts. These standards should be dynamic, being constantly improved and updated as research, monitoring and technological developments dictate changes.

Cooperative Research

Stakeholders need to cooperate in researching wildlife and wind power issues. Jointly designed, jointly funded, and even jointly executed – such studies will provide information that allays unfounded concerns, identifies unknown problems, and suggests solutions. In order to achieve desired results, this research must adhere to high scientific standards. Research needs associated with wind power in the central plains include:

• Further studies on the effects of habitat fragmentation on greater prairie-chicken demographics.

• Research to determine area size of unfragmented habitats necessary to support healthy populations of prairie grouse and other grassland and shrubland wildlife.

• Mitigation studies focusing on management practices to compensate for habitats lost to development, and the amount of buffer required between usable habitat and wind energy developments.

• Experiments to determine the efficacy of establishing new "artificial" leks.

• Research on reducing other impacts to prairie grouse populations.

• Pre-development studies to determine wildlife use of selected sites to design siting and mitigation.

• Before-after/control-impact (BACI) studies on all sites, from pre-development to operational phases of the project.

Mitigate Damages When Necessary

Some detriments to wildlife may be inevitable when wind power is developed. It is important that stakeholders cooperate, however, first to avoid negative impacts and second to mitigate habitat losses when necessary and feasible. The latter may involve off-site habitat restoration, translocation of affected species, protection of existing key habitats, and modifying uses and management of nearby lands to improve targeted habitats.


Avoiding and Minimizing Ecological Damages

Though research and standards for minimizing and mitigating ecological damages from wind power development are presently limited, some measures are suggested by experience and studies to date. The following prescriptions represent only a starting point for considering such measures. While some of these practices may be proven ineffective or unnecessary in the future, they should be applied in the interim.

Siting

A key tool for avoiding unnecessary negative ecological impacts of wind power development is planning. Landscape-level examinations of key habitats, migration corridors, staging areas, and even scenic areas should be used to develop general siting strategies. This approach, combined with assessments of wind resources, will help to ensure that turbines generate the greatest power and the least ecological disturbance and controversy.

Wind power facilities should be sited on lands that are already altered or cultivated, away from areas of intact and healthy native habitats. If this is not practical, then fragmented or degraded habitats should be selected over relatively intact areas. Use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery may help to differentiate between intact landscapes and fragmented areas. Turbines should be grouped together, instead of being scattered across a landscape, and they should be situated in a way that does not interfere with important wildlife movement corridors and staging areas. Turbines should be situated along the periphery of such landscapes, particularly if the identified corridor or area is small.

Turbine and Tower Design

No perches should be allowed on the nacelles of turbines. Towers should not utilize lattice-type construction or other designs that provide perches for avian predators. Preference should be given to turbines that do not require FAA aircraft warning lights (i.e., less then 199 feet in height).

Infrastructure Placement and Design

Power lines within a site should be buried when feasible. All infrastructure should be able to withstand periodic burning of vegetation, a process necessary for maintaining most prairie habitats. Roads and fences should be minimized.

Construction, Maintenance, and Operation

Maintenance and construction should be done only when the ground is frozen, or when soils are dry, and native vegetation is dormant. Inspections of turbines should be carried out by use of small all-terrain vehicles or other light conveyances, in order to minimize habitat disturbance and the need for improved roads. Native vegetation of local ecotypes should be used when re-seeding disturbed areas. Wildlife needs should be considered in determining the frequency and timing of mowing around turbine towers and associated structures.

Density

Determining desirable turbine density for wildlife needs is difficult, due to different species’ interactions with wind turbines. In the case of grassland birds, particularly prairie grouse, it may be best to group turbines as closely as possible, because wider turbine spacings are likely to expand habitat abandonment. However, raptors and migrant birds may benefit from wider turbine spacings. The key is to locate turbines in areas of minor significance for wildlife


Summary and Conclusions

Wind power offers hope of a cleaner, more sustainable energy source. It may be one of the most ecologically benign means for generating electricity. As such, it serves society’s broadest interests to foster responsible development of this technology.

Significant evidence suggests that wind power development may entail threats to rare wildlife species and to fragile ecosystems that are already diminished. The greatest of these threats may come in the form of landscape fragmentation and habitat abandonment by grassland birds. While the science behind this evidence is incomplete, concerns over ill-considered wind power development compel a cautious and collaborative approach between energy developers, consumers, wildlife advocates, and policy makers. Such an approach should include:

• adoption of interim best practices for siting, constructing, and maintaining wind power facilities;

• habitat mitigation standards;

• adoption of interim best practices for managing wildlife habitats associated with wind power facilities;

• collaborative research and impact monitoring;

• ongoing improvement of best practices and mitigation standards through an adaptive management approach; and

• readily available and accurate public information.


Rob Manes
Midwest Regional Representative
Wildlife Management Institute
10201 S. Hwy. 281
Pratt, KS 67124
620-672-5650
[email protected]